The Silviculture research plays a vital role in conservation of forest resources. Keeping in view on our vast stretch of forest cover, the Forest research wing with its headquarters at Angul was created during the year 1936 with a vision to explore various strategies and provide scientific support for decision making on matters related to forestry with particular emphasis on conservation, sustainable utilization and scientific management of our forest resources in the state. Subsequently the hedquarters was shifted to Bhubaneswar in the year 1993 and one more Silviculture division was created with headquarters at Rayagada during the year 2008 for imparting focus on conservation stratergy of Forest wealth in KBK districts which is having rich biodiversity.
Earlier a lot of research studies was made on adaptability of different exotic species through field trial and progeny trial and in the long run it was found that though the exotics like various pinus species are yielding very good growth especially in Koraput and Kandhamal district, their naural regeneration are noticed to be very poor. Besides that it was further observed that introduction of exotics in our forest land hampers the regeneration of ground folra and indigenous species.
In the present scenari, it s observed that though the forest cover is increasing, there is always a threat to ou indigenous growing stock. Thus it is the need of the hour to embelish the conservation strategy in the back drop of dwindling growing stock and to create employment opportunity and livelihood support for forest dwellers through scientific management by utilizing our exising NTFP resources.
To beacon the aspiration of forest lovers and to provide improvised technique to the department, the research wing is having 19 Research Gardens and 4 Hi-Tech Nurseries in the state, where in different silviculture studies are being conducted under guidance of the experienced officers of the state and scientists.
The following Silvicultural plots are existing in the State Silviculturist, Bhubaneswar and Silviculturist, Rayagada.
|Number of Existing Plots
|Area in Hectare
|Seeds Production Area
In the plots we broadly focus on Tree Improvement Programme, Adaptive research and Silviculture study of indigenous species available in our Forests.
Tree Improvement Programme
Silvicultural Research and experiments in the State are carried out in pursuance to quinquennial programme approved by the Principal Chief Conservator of Forests, Odisha, and Bhubaneswar as per Rule 195 of OFD Code. These programmes are carried out by two Silviculture Divisions of the state namely State Silviculturist, Bhubaneswar and Silviculturist, Rayagada. The details of Research Activities are given below:-
Collection of Quality Seeds
Collection of quality seeds from the phenotypically superior trees of 20 important species from Seed Production Area and other forest areas are taken up every year in the following manner.
- Sample Plot : Sample plots are taken to scale up information from tree to stand to Forest which is the representative of the area to which results are applied. There are 32 (Thirtytwo) sample plots covering Shorea robusta, Terminalia tomentosa, Pinusinsularis, Pinuscaribue, Tectona grandis & Euaclyptus species etc. have been demarcated over the years.
- Preservation Plot: There are 17 (seventeen) number of Preservation Plots existing in the State, representing the main forest sub-types set up for systemic observation of silvicultural and ecological changes.
- Plus Trees: Elite trees of important indigenous species have been identified and selected on the basis of exceptional rate of growth, form and resistance to adverse factors to obtain significant amount of genetic gain as quickly as possible. During the current year it is decided to identify mother trees of 50 indeginous species in each Diivision by engaging research fellows with an intention to supply quality seeds for the Divisions.
- Raising RT seedlings: The large scale use of polypots for raising seedlings creates tremendous environmental hazards and inviting pollution in the vicinity of natural forests while carrying out massive plantation in the open forests. In order to minimize the pollution, we have introduced to raise seedlings in hyco-pots permanently made for the purpose which are reusable and produces better quality planting material in comparison to polypots because of stronger root system of the seedlings.
- NTFP Species: A large number of NTFP species were tried in different stations under different agro-climatic zones over the years to introduce economically important species in the degraded forest areas. Species like Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Lemon grass (Cymbopogon), Piper nigrum, Coffea arabica have been grown in Odisha. The planting technique of these species has been standardized. The Hill broom and siali climber have been introduced in the Researrh Gardens and forest areas simultaneously in the last year to study their growth and output so that these are to be cultivated in a large scale by the tribal people to increase their livelihood support. In the current year, the roulfea serpentinas have been introduced towards raising of NTFP species.
- Intercropping of NTFP species in Bamboo Plantation : In the current year, we have made trial of planting of Rauwolfia and hill brooms as inter crop in bamboo plantation to study the qualitative and quantative production of Rauwolfia seeds and broom sticks by using FYM and organic manure and its commercial feasibility with market link so that it can be introduced in forests as well as in private lands for providing livelihood support to the forest dwellers.
- Trial of Canes : Planting technique for indigenous species of canes, have been tried at Pattanaikia research station. The species like calamus strictus, calamus, longisetus, calamus tenuis & calamusviminalis are found to be established well. A conservation plot over an area of 0.5 ha is proposed to be established at pattnaikia research garden by collecting various cane species from inside and outside the state.
- Hi-tech Nursery & Other Nurseries: There are 4 nos of Hi-tech Nurseries existing in the two divisions, 3 Nurseries in Silviculture Division, Bhubaneswar and the rest one in Silviculture Division, Rayagada. Besides, one upgraded Nursery has been established at khandagiri R.G of Silviculture Division, Bhubaneswar which have been maintained for production of large-scale quality planting materials of indigenous species. the name of HTNs & UG nursery are as follows.
Name of Hi-Tech Nurseries – 1.Tartua Hi-Tech Nursery
2. Bhasma Hi-tech Nursery
3. Ajodhya Hi-tech Nursery
4. Jaring Hi-Tech Nursery
5. Khandagiri Upgraded Nursery
- Nakshyatra Vana : A Nakshyatra Vana has been developed at Khandagiri research station during 2010, where trees associated with 27 constellations of Nakshatras have been planted. A lawn has been maintained at the centre of the Nakshatra Vana area adding aesthetic value to it.
- Arboretum: There was an arboretum created during the year 1996 at Khandagiri RG with collection of 148 nos species and it was not maintained for last two decades. In current year the arboretum has been given new shape and brought to a presentable format by introducing 15 nos of new species for academic study of the forest scholars.
- Medicinal Garden: PThe medicinal garden created earlier has been renovated and stretches over 2.5 ha with 140 no of permanents beds and raising of 140 nos of medicinal species which meets the requirement of people of Bhubaneswar for supply of medicinal plants.
Soil Analysis of urban plantation and its growth study :
There is scientific study of soil profile of plantation raised by the forest department. In the current year the soil analysis has been made in different urban plantations raised by the Divisions throughout the state by collecting soil from different strata with a view to study the growth of forest species with the soil nutrients available in that area. So that a data base will be prepared for suitability of introduction of species in presence of different soil nutient status.
RET Plantation :
From the recent study by RPRC, it is revealed that some of the valuable forest species are under threat and unscientific exploitation of MFP from the trees makes them more vulnerable. Hence focus on conservation and propagation of some RET trees are being given by raising seedlings and creating trial plots in our RG/HTN. In the current year, the plantation of phanphana, Ritha and salai have been made in our RG and it is proposed to create large scale planting stock of RET species for supply to the divisions for its propagation in natural forests.
Live Hedge :
Most of the plantation taken up by the department in the forests are susceptible to biotic interference and fire hazards. In order to give protection to the plantation and forests from the above factors, planting of kanta baunsa and agave have been introduced along the boundary of the RG/HTN to study its suitability for acting as naturai barriers and live hedge for protection of the area, which can be implemented by the forest divisions for protetion of the plantation and forests.
Production of Quality Planting Materials (QPM) :
With the intention of raising non-teak species in the nursery, effort was made to collect different indigenous seeds from the forest. Since the traditional production of teak stump is discontinued, the collection of seeds of sal associates was a difficult task. Field staff have taken interest for collection of 53 varieties of non-teak species seeds and supplied to different divisiond to the tune of about twenty quintals. Raising of nursery in root trainers and mother beds was initiated for different indigenous species.
1. RT seedlings : 145000 nos
2. Stump : 1189040 nos
Ficus Conservation Garden :
The Germ plasm of Ficus species is significant species is significant for its prominent role in climate change of the states having tropical climate. A Ficus conservation plot is under taken with 96 varieties of Ficus plants and more than 50 species of Ficus bonsai in Khandagiri RG over 3.0 ha of land in the year 2018-19.
Database of flora available in the state :
In the current year, a digital data base of 2727 numbers of flora available in our state has been developed along with photos of different parts of the species so that in one click, we can acknowledge the vaious characterisics of a particular plant including its utility .