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Forest Types

According to Champion and Seth Classification, 18 forest Types are present in Odisha. However broadly, based on the relief, rainfall and vegetation types, the forests of Odisha are divided into the following 4 major types:

  • Northern Tropical Semi-evergreen Forests: These occur in the lower hills and valleys above 600 m elevation in the forest divisions of Mayurbhanj, Dhenkanal, Athgarh, Puri, Nayagarh, Parlakhemudi, Koraput and Kalahandi. While the top storey trees are deciduous and remain leafless for a short time, the second storey is evergreen. The important tree species are: Arjun, Mango, MankarKendu (Diospyros embryopteris), Champa, Rai, Manda and Nageswar.
  • Tropical Moist Deciduous Forests (Also known as Monsoon Forests): These occur in the lower elevations in Mayurbhanj and Keonjhar districts and the districts bordering on Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh. The top canopy is formed by Sal (Shorea robusta) and its allies Asan, Piasal, Kurum, Kangra and Dhawra and Daba bamboo (Bambusa arundinacea).
  • Tropical Dry Deciduous Forests: They occur in the drier central and western areas in parts of Balangir, Kalahandi, Sambalpur, Khariar, Deogarh and Gobindpur divisions. Teak instead of Sal, and Salia bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus) instead of Daba bamboo predominate in these forests.
  • Tidal Mangrove Forests: These are limited in extent, scattered and confined to the sea-coast, especially in BhitarKanika and the Mahanadi delta. The characteristic tree species are Karika (Bruquiera), Sundari (Heritiera), Bani (Avicennia), Rai (Rhizophora), Guan (Exocaria), etc. As Hental (Phoenix paludosa) grows here abundantly in clusters, the mangrove forests are locally called Hental van.

Forest Types of Odisha as per India State of Forest Report,2015

 Forest Type  Area in Sq km % age
 2B/C3 Odisha Semi Evergreen Forest  106.01 0.20
 2/2S1 Secondary Moist Bamboo Brakes  253.86  0.48
 3B/C2 Southern Moist Mixed Deciduous Forest  1142.79  2.15
 38/2S1 Southern Secondary Moist Mixed Deciduous Forest  351.61  0.66
 3C/C1d Peninsular (coastal)Sal Forest  4.94  0.01
 3C/C2e (i) Moist Peninsular High level Sal Forest 2697.64 5.08
 3C/C2e (ii) Moist Peninsular low level Sal Forest  10683.78  20.11
 3C/C2e (iii) Moist Peninsular Valley Sal Forest  1383.54  1.61
 3C/C3/2S1 Northern Secondary Moist Mixed Deciduous Forest  4919.52  9.26
4A/ L1 Littoral Forest 75.06 0.14
4B/TS2 Mangrove Forest 180.28 0.34
5A/C1b Dry Teak Forest 140.73 0.27
5A/C3 Southern Dry Mixed Deciduous Forest 3807.61 7.17
5B/C1c Dry Peninsular Sal Forest 8204.93 15.45
5B/C2 Northern Dry Mixed Deciduous Forest 12710.14 23.93
5/DS1 Dry Deciduous Scrub 5111.41 9.62
5/B2 Boswellia Forest 50.08 0.09
5/E9 Dry Bamboo Brakes 714.24 1.34
Plantation/ TOF 578.83 1.09
TOTAL 53117.00 100%