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FOREST RESEARCH

Silvicultural Research

The importance of trees for its wood, food and other utilization is increasing, but the forest area in the country is getting reduced day by day; the gap between the production and demand is widening. The demand cannot be met unless short rotation and fast growing species of tree are grown and also preserve and conserve the slow growing and local/ species. In many tree species regeneration is hindered due to variety of reasons, both biotic and climatic. Since many of the tree species are propagated through seeds, the desirable characters are sometimes reduced. Tissue Culture technique no doubt is an important tool for genetic and clonal multiplication of planting material in afforestation programme. This micro proliferation is not always feasible in all places and conditions and it needs high technical laboratories etc. So in the absence of such conditions Plus Trees, Clonal Multiplication Gardens, Clonal Seed Orchards, Germ Plasm Banks, Progeny trials etc. are   solutions for preserving/ conserving and propagation of genetic characters of forest tree species.

Silvicultural Research started in the State during the year 1936. At present the Research Wing of the Forest Department comprises of two Silviculture Divisions namely Bhubaneswar and RayagadaSilviculture Division under the control of the Chief Conservator of Forests, Training and Development, Cuttack.

The different components of Research deliver desired output in production both quantitatively and qualitatively. The Forest Research largely focuses on Tree Improvement Programme, Adaptive Research and Silvicultural Studies.

The Forest Research largely focuses on Tree improvement programme, Adaptive Research & Silvicultural Studies. There are 23 Research Gardens, 32 sample plots,17 preservation plots, 52 Seed Orchards and 254 sites of plus trees existing in the State for the above purpose.

The following Silvicultural plots are existing in the State Silviculturist, Bhubaneswar and Silviculturist, Rayagada.

Sl.

No

Item

Number of Existing Plots

Total

Area in Hectare

Total

Bhubaneswar

Rayagada

Bhubaneswar

Rayagada

1

Research Garden

14

9

23

442.0

409.90

851.90

2

Preservation Plot

14

03

17

551.8

140.0

691.80

3

Sample Plots

18

14

32

4.63

10.99

15.61

4

Hi-Tech Nursery

3

1

4

383.0

142.50

5.26

5

Seeds Orchards

43

9

52

44.03

33.50

77.53

6

Seeds Production Area

11

12

23

66.63

177.06

243.69

7

Plus Tree

148

106

254

 

 

 

 

Tree Improvement Programme

Silvicultural Research and experiments in the State are carried out in pursuance to quinquennial programme approved by the Principal Chief Conservator of Forests, Odisha, and Bhubaneswar as per Rule 195 of OFD Code. These programmes are carried out by two Silviculture Divisions of the state namely State Silviculturist, Bhubaneswar and Silviculturist, Rayagada. The details of Research Activities are given below:-

Collection of Quality Seeds

Collection of quality seeds from the phenotypically superiortrees of 20 important species from Seed Production Area and other forest areas are taken up every year in the following manner.

 

  1. Sample Plot : Sample plots are taken to scale up information from tree to stand to Forest which is the representative of the area to which results are applied. There are 32 (Thirtytwo) sample plots covering Shorea robusta, Terminalia tomentosa, Pinusinsularis, Pinuscaribue, Tectona grandis & Euaclyptus species etc. have been demarcated over the years.
  2. Preservation Plot:There are 17 (seventeen) number of Preservation Plots existing in the State, representing the main forest sub-types set up for systemic observation of silvicultural and ecological changes.
  3. Plus Trees:            Elite trees of important indigenous species have been identified and selected on the basis of exceptional rate of growth, form and resistance to adverse factors to obtain significant amount of genetic gain as quickly as possible. Total 254 sites have been selected for different species of plus trees in the state.
  4. Clonal Seed Orchard (CSO):    For Tree Improvement the clones are developed and preserved from a superior variety of germplasm through clonal propagation. The large requirement of scale propagation cannot be fulfilled through vegetative propagation. So the superior clones preserved through vegetative propagation and clonal multiplication gardens & the propagules thus produced will be planted to create tree orchards of the clones with an aim to produce seeds for large scale propagation of the species in future.

                        The advantage of the Clonal Seed Orchard is that the tree developed from a vegetatively produced clone of a younger age will carry the Physiological age of the Mother plant. So that if the clone was developed from a 25 years old tree and the clone after attaining 10 years of age (though not ready for production of seeds, if it was from seed origin) but due to its clonal nature its physiological age will be Mother Plant’s age (25years) + Physical age 10 years = 35 years and so at 10 years of age the clone will start producing viable seeds.

                        Clonal Seed Orchards of many species like Tectonagrandis , Pongamiapinnata, Simarubaglauca, Acacia mangium, Dalbergiasisoo, Casuarinaequisetifolia, Terminaliaarjuna, Pterocarpussantalinus, Terminaliachebula, Azadirachtaindica, Pterocarpusmarsupium, Sapindustrifoliate, Anogeissusacuminata, Eucalyptus hybrid (JK Clone), Bixaorelina, Cinnamomumzeylanicum, Spathodiacampanulata, Sapindusemarginatus, Cassia fistula, Alstoniascholaris, Messuaferrea, Saracaindica, Terminaliabelerica,Emblicaofficinalis, Gmelinaarborea,  Albizialebbek,  Micheliachampaka, Buchnanialanzan, Aeglemarmelos, Swieteniamacrophylla are developed in different Research Gardens.

  1. Clonal Multiplication Garden (C.M.G.): A clone is a vegetatively propagated plant /tree propagule from a superior mother tree; where the character of the mother tree are 100% pass on to the offspring/ clone. This clones are maintained in a garden calledClonal Multiplication Garden (CMG) where they are lopped at frequent intervals so that the clone will not grow into a tree but maintained like a bush form where the fresh branchy, vegetative shoots can be easily collected and the cuttings can be propagated further to get large number of seedlings for planting in the field as clonal plantation/ create clonal seed orchard, so that we can get seeds of the superior mother tree.

                        This type of vegetative propagation is advantageous for plants whose seeds either germinate slowly or poorly or the species which are having long juvenile period during which they do not produce flowers, fruits, and seeds. In this regard only limited attempts are made in tropical trees and bamboos where there is no standard technique of vegetative propagation for many of the timber species. Especially in case of Bamboos the conventional method of propagation is either from seed or planting from offsets.

                        Since most of the bamboos produce seeds only twice or thrice in a century, so possibility of raising plantation from seeds is very limited.

                        So due to all above reasons CMG is a very useful method not only for propagating Bamboos where the seeds are not available continuously but also for other species like Teak, Sisoo, Eucalyptus, G. arborea and many other tropical tree species.

Clonal Multiplication Gardens of different species like Tectonagrandis, Pongamiapinnata, Terminaliabelerica, Madhucaindica, Azadirachtaindica, Terminaliachebula, Emblicaofficinalis, Eucalyptus hybrid, Gmelinaarborea, Ougeniaoogenensis  are raised and maintained in different Research Gardens .

                       

  1. Progeny Trial:       Progeny test is a test of the value for selective breeding of a individual genotype by looking at the progeny produced by different cross breeds. It is a trial of superiority of parents in a breeding programme by which their offsprings are planted in replicated field trial.

                                        So the progeny trials are meant to study and estimate the individual heritability and genetic correlation for set of quality traits basing on the data like tree height, size, bole quality etc. from the phenotype.

In order to study the behavior of different progenies of plus tree, progeny trial of Tectonagrandis, Gmelinaarborea and Dalbergiasissoo have been conducted at different Research Gardens.

  1. Germ Plasm Bank: Germ plasm is the living genetic resources such as seed or tissue that are maintained for the purpose of animal and plant breeding preservation and other research uses.

                        Whereas Germplasm Bank is an ex-situ or (off site) collection of genetic material held for long term security or for ease of access.

                        Germplasm bank or gene banks manage both genetic resources and information about those resources. Diversified genetic resources are essential to improve the productivity and maintain the quality of the productivity.

                        So the Germplasm Banks are thus maintained in those Silvicultre Research Divisions with an aim and objective to collect better genome or genotype, propagate it and preserve for future for diversified propagation of the same throughout the state forest via Afforestation Programme.

In view of this, the Germ Plasm Banks of Teak have been established in Bhatapada, Koshala Research stations by procuring elite genotypes from Andhra Pradesh, Gujurat, Maharastra, Karnataka, Tamilnadu along with the elites of Odisha.

Adaptive Research

  1. Tropical Pine:    Tropical Pine to meet demand of pulpwood and fuel wood, experiments on induction of 25 exotic species of tropical pines have been carried out in Kandhamal District. Comparative studies of their growth behavior and adaptability to different agro-climatic zone have been taken up during 1980
  2. Introduction  of New Species of Eucalyptus: Extension studies are being conducted at Kalinga and Joshipur for 67 different species of Eucalyptus since 1977 in different climatic zone. Out of these, 5 species have been found to be suitable for Odisha, (1)Eucalyptus hybrid (2) Eucalyptus citriodora (3) Eucalyptus camaldulensis (4)Eucalyptus teretricornis (5)Eucalyptus torreliana.
  3. Exotic Acacia Species: Field trials for a number of exotic Acacia species have been conducted in different research Gardens at Balukhanda and Pattanaikia. Out of these species, Acacia auriculoformis and Acacia mangium are found to be suitable for Odisha climatic conditions.
  4. Field Trial of Casuarina: Planting stock of Casuarina equisetifolia and Casuarina junghuhniana of Coimbatore along with local species were trialed at Chandipur and Arbandh for Comparative Growth Study in Odisha. Plantation was taken up during the year 2012-13 by Balasore Wild Life Division and handed over to Silviculture Division, Bhubaneswar during the year 2016-17 for its maintenance and Growth Study.
  5. NTFP Species:A large number of NTFP species were tried in different stations under different agro-climatic zones over the years to introduce economically important species in the degraded forest areas. Species like Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Lemon grass (Cymbopogon), Piper nigrum, Coffea arabica have been grown in Odisha. The planting technique of these species has been standardized.
  6. Trial of Canes: Planting technique for indigenous species of canes have been tried at Pattanaikia Research Station. The species like Calamusstrictus, Calamuslongisetus, Calamustenuis and Calamusviminalis are found to be established well
  7. Trial of Bamboo: Planting technique for indigenous species of bamboo have been tried at Khandagiri Research Station. The species like Bamboosa vulgaris, Bamboosa nutans, Thyrostachys regia etc. are found to be established well.
  8. Creation of Seed Stand of Medicinal Plants:
  • To collect good quality seeds from superior phenotype and genotype trees by creating good seed stands.
  • To fulfill the quality seed requirement of different Forest Divisions by supplying seeds from the seed stand.
  • To preserve the species of high medicinal value from extinction in future.
  • A Medicinal Seed Stand created during the year 2016-17 over an area of 1.0 ha with spacies of Mesua ferrea, Syzygium cumini, Oroxylum indicum, Strychnos nux-vomica, Terminalia chebula.
  1. Maintenance of Hi-tech Nursery & Other Nurseries:

There are 4 nos of Hi-tech Nurseries existed in the two divisions namely State Silviculturist, Bhubaneswar 3 nos and Silviculturist, Rayagada 1 no. which has been maintained for production of quantitatively Quality Planting Materials (Stump) of Teak and other indigenous species (Approxmately 30 Lakhs per annum).

Name of Hi-Tech Nurseries –            1.Tartua Hi-Tech Nursery

                                                                        2. Bhasma Hi-tech Nursery

                                                                        3. Ajodhya Hi-tech Nursery      

                                                                        4. Jaring Hi-Tech Nursery

Nakshyatra Vana: A NakshyatraVana has been developed at Khandagiri Research Station during 2010, where trees associated with 27 constellations of Nakshatras have been planted. Astrologers believe that each constellation of the zodiac is associated with a tree. Planting a tree as per zodiac sign is believed to bring good luck to the planter. A lawn was maintained at the centre depicting a new look of  Nakshyatra Vana with fresh painting of all the signages, replacing damaged trees and constructing a brick line for each Nakshyatra section.

 Silvicultural Studies

            The preservation plot comprising 64Ha.in Debrigarh Wild Life Sanctuary of Mahanadi WL Division has been selected during 2008 for Bio-diversity study. During 2016-17 study has been taken up to establish changes in Biological diversity.

Production of Quality Planting Materials (QPM): Sufficient quantity of Quality Planting Materials (QPM) (Stumps) of Teak and other indigenous species are produced to meet the plantation requirement in different schemes every year in the State.

Workshop on Best Practices in Hi-tech Nurseries on Root Trainer Seedlings Technology: One workshop onBest Practices in Hi-tech Nurseries on Root Trainer Seedlings Technology” was conducted on 12.04.2017 at Conference Hall of State Silviculturist, Bhubaneswar. The Pr. C.C.F. & HOFF., Odisha was the chief guest of the workshop. The Divisional Forest Officers, ACFs, Forest Range Officers of different Divisions of the state participated in the workshop. Prasanta Kumar Pandit, IFS,Chief Conservator of Forests & Addl. Project Director (Implementation), WBFBCP attended for imparting training on the above matter in the workshop.

Expenditure on Forest Research

The programme named as Forest Research with the budget provision under the Programme Expenditure Scheme “Training Programme”envisages to support special research schemes on the following themes:

  1. Tree breeding / improvement activities of commercially important trees and important indigenous species including NTFPs,
  2. Standardisation of nursery & establishment techniques of medicinal plants and NTFP species.
  3. Sustainable harvest techniques for NTFPs and medicinal plants.
  4. Propagation of improved varieties of Bamboo and Canes.
  5. Application of bio-fertiliser.
  6. Development of agro-forestry models in different agro-climatic zones and

Vii) Development of seed production areas for major species.

Apart from that, during the current year, the budget provision of Rs.30.00 lakh has been made for Silviculture Researches on tree improvement, nursery & plantation techniques and plant ecological studies with up-gradation of research facilities as per the approved Quinquennial Research Programme.

 

TRAINING AND RECRUITMENT

Training programme

The Forest staff need to be both technically trained and extension oriented. The training of the initial recruits as well as orientation training for in-service personnel is extremely important. Updating knowledge on new emerging topics of different aspects of forestry, forest management and forest research is essential to augment the efficiency & skill of forestry personnel.

The training institutes need to be strengthened by providing modern training equipment, better amenities like boarding & lodging facility for the trainees, facility for sports & other curricular activities etc. for conducting trainings of State Forest Department personnel and other department trainings. During the year 2017-18, an outlay of Rs.30.00 lakh has been allocated for implementation of the above.

Training at inside and outside the State

Training the officers is an important activity taken up by the Forest Department. Every year large number of officers ranging from IFS Officers, State Forest Service Cadre Officers such as Divisional Forest Officers, Assistant Conservator of Forests, Forest Range Officers, Foresters and Forest Guards undertake various trainings organized at both inside and outside the State. Forest officers of various ranks, trained under different components during the Calendar year, 2017 are furnished below.

Sl. No.

Category of trainings

Officers Trained (In service Training)

I.F.S.

(All ranks)

OFS (SB)

ACFs

F.R.O./

Dy.R.O.

Forester

Forest

Guard

1.

Oneweek CompulsoryTraining of IFS Officers

46

-

-

-

-

-

2.

Two days Training -cum- workshop of IFS Officers

24

-

-

-

-

-

3.

Mid-Career Training of IFS Officers

04

-

-

-

-

-

4.

Senior Foresters Workshop

25

-

-

-

-

-

5.

Joint Training Programmefor IAS/IPS/IFS Officers

     06

-

-

-

-

-

6.

Miscellaneous trainingoutside the State for IFS/ OFS/FR rank Officers

    07

-

-

-

-

-

7.

Miscellaneous trainingwithin the State for IFS/ OFS/FR rank Officers

-

-

02

01

-

-

8.

Foresters Nominated

-

-

-

-

08

-

9.

Forest Guards Nominated

-

-

-

-

-

17

Total

112

0

02

01

08

17

Training of Frontline Staff

The training of frontline staff/ State level Executive officers are being under taken by the Forest Department under the supervision of Chief Conservator of Forests, Training and Development, Cuttack. The training imparted is of technical nature and as per the theme prescribed by Director of Forest Education, Dehradun.At present four training institutions are functioning at different corners of the State as detailed below.

  1. Odisha Forest Rangers College, Anguloccupying a total area of 37.79 acre was established in 1979 at Angul. Like every year, in the current year the following training courses have been conducted in the college.
  1. Induction Training has been given to Forest Guards and Foresters
  2. Refresher Course like (a) One week Refresher course for Front line staff under State Plan (HRD), (b) One week Basic Computer Training for Front line staff/ Ministerial staff under State Plan (HRD) and (c) Two week Refresher course for Front line staff/ Range Officers & ACFs sponsored by Director Forest Education, Dehradoon have been organized successfully.
  1. Nicholson Forester Training School, Champua, was established in 1927 at champua Town of Keonjhar District occupying a total area of 7.76 acres. Training Courses conducted here during the current year are as follows.
  1. Induction Training has been given to 40 Forest Guards for duration of 6 months.
  2. A two-week Refresher course for Front line staff/ Range Officers & ACFs sponsored by Director Forest Education, Dehradoon has also been organized successfully.
  1. Forester Training School, G.Udayagiri was established in 1980at G.Udaygiri town of Kandhamal District occupying 11.5 acres of land. The following Training Courses have been conducted here.
  1. Induction Training has been given to 40 Forest Guards for a duration of 6 months.
  2. Refresher Course which includes two weeks Refresher course for Front line staff/ Range Officers & ACFs sponsored by Director Forest Education, Dehradoon has also been successfully conducted.

 

  1. Forester Training School, Bhubaneswar was established in1987 at Ghatikia, Bhubaneswar town of Khurda District occupying a total area of 8.0 acres. Training Courses conducted here during the current year are as follows.
  1. Induction Training has been given to 40 Foresters for duration of one year.
  2. Two week refresher course for Front line staff/ Range Officers & ACFs sponsored by Director Forest Education, Dehradoon has been conducted successfully.

Detail Picture of Training programmes conducted at these four Institutions during 2017-18

 

Name of the Training Programme

Forester

Forest Guards

Front Line & Ministerial staff

Induction Training

123

242

 

Refresher Courses sponsored by Director Forest Education, Dehradoon

 

 

61

Refresher Course sponsored by PCCF, Odisha under HRD Scheme

 

 

125

 

Recruitment

 

The vacancies in the various cadres are being filled-up either through direct recruitment or through promotion as prescribed in the Rule. Regarding filling up of vacancies under direct recruitment posts of Assistant Conservator of Forests and Forest Rangers, 48 candidates have been selected for the post of Assistant Conservator of Forests (ACF) and 111 candidates for the post of Forest Ranger through Orissa Public Service Commission (OPSC). These 159 ACFs and Forest Rangers have been nominated to undergo Induction Training in a recognized Training Institute as per the allotment by the Director, Forest Education, Ministry of Environment, Forests& Climate Change, Government of India, Dehradun. The posts coming under promotional quota of ACFs, Forest Rangers and Deputy Rangers are being filled-up regularly as per promotional procedure prescribed through Departmental Promotional Committee (DPC).

 

Besides, necessary action has been initiated to fill up 806 number of Forest Guard posts under direct recruitment quota.

In respect of filling up of vacancies of Ministerial Staffs, decision has been taken to fill up 16 Junior Assistants in the Common Cadre of Forest Heads of Department, 9 Junior Clerks in the Circle Cadre & 150 Junior Clerks in the Division Cadre and the same will be filled up very soon through the concerned recruiting authorities.